The Slow Professor

Slow professor

The Slow Professor had me revise what it means to be an academic. It is well worth a read in full, but in short, I think the message is: stop worrying about time management and making time and fitting things in and instead focus on the pleasures of the academic life. Putting this another way, the authors of The Slow Professor encourage us to resist the corporatisation of academic life (a symptom of which is speeded up, efficient performance and the resulting need for time management) and instead devote yourself to what is academically pleasureable, meaningful and interesting. Devote yourself to collegial discussions, crafting your ideas into an article, working in the lab, the library or the field, fostering the love of your subject in a new generation, and creating ah-ha moments for your students.

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Posted in Book review

My student complains I don’t give enough feedback, but I give lots of feedback!

Here is my reflective, diagnostic process for figuring out what to do when I face situations like this.

My initial analysis of the situation: Although my feedback practices normally work for my students, they aren’t working for this student. I need to diagnose what the problem is and work out a strategy that will support this student.

My diagnosis process:  I talk with the student and read their work, so I can form a hypothesis about the underlying problem, then I devise a solution based on my hypothesis, and trial this solution. If that fails, I rule out the first hypothesis and go to an alternative, trialling a different solution based on the second hypothesis. And so on until I find a solution.

One diagnosis I always reject: It’s their problem (because they aren’t smart enough, or they shouldn’t have been let into my class, or they don’t do the work, or they simply ignore my feedback).

I don’t even consider this diagnosis, first because it is based on the fallacious idea: “I’ve tried everything, and it didn’t work, so it must be the student at fault.” But I haven’t tried everything, and it is impossible to try everything, so it is a fallacy to blame my current lack of a solution on my student. Put another way, it is an unjustifiably defeatist response. Instead I take the mindset that there is always a way to enable every student, but I may have to do some work to figure it out.

But most importantly, I ignore this diagnosis because it is irrelevant. The only relevant point is that my teaching is not working for this student. Blaming my student (or even blaming myself) is missing the point. The job I have as an educator is to devise methods that will work for this student.

As an aside, because teachers can be overworked, it is both honest and appropriate to think: “I don’t have time to sort out this student at the moment”. Then you can come back to a diagnosis and teaching solution when you have more time, perhaps when you are designing your next round of teaching. Just don’t fool yourself that there is nothing you can do.

 

Here are some of the diagnostic possibilities that I do consider, each one followed by a possible ‘treatment’. The list is not exhaustive, but does cover many of the most common areas of trouble for students.

  1. My feedback is not clear for this student.
    • Explain in several different ways, and find a way of expressing yourself that does make sense to this student.
  2. I am asking too much of this student, too fast. I’m asking them to do tasks that are too hard for them.
    • Break the task into do-able steps, and support the student to tackle each of these steps.
  3. They are terrified of the task, or they think they are incompetent.
    • Build their self-confidence and self-efficacy. Tell them they will succeed with time and effort. Give them doable tasks so that they experience a sense of success.
  4. They don’t understand what feedback is, what it is for, or why it is important.
    • Explain what feedback is, and convince them that it is beneficial for them.
  5. They don’t understand how to use the feedback I give.
    • Give them guided practice at using feedback to improve. Show them how you would use your feedback to improve a small aspect of their work, then ask them to follow the same process, using other feedback to improve a different aspect of their work.
  6. They expected more or different feedback than what I provide.
    • Negotiate with the student to align your expectations with theirs. Find out what they expected, and either convince them to change their expectations to what you actually provide, or change what you provide to better meet their expectations, or some combination of the two.
  7. The student has some deeper conceptual misunderstanding about the nature of the task for which I am giving feedback, for example, about what it means to write a critical essay. While they lack this foundational understanding, any feedback or instruction I give them will be misunderstood and pointless.
    • Identify concepts that are crucial to the task (sometimes called threshold concepts) – such as ‘argument’, ‘evidence’, ‘reasons’, and ‘convincing the reader’ – and help the student understand these concepts. Build this understanding before you tackle the issue of feedback directly.
Posted in Postgraduate education, Reflection and improvement, Writing

Learning is a journey

My colleagues and I have been researching student conceptions of learning using a research method called photovoice (Wang &Burris 1997; Wang 2006). Students take photographs that metaphorically represent learning, and then talk about what they have depicted. To prepare for a second round of this research, I decided to take my own photos to explore my own conception of learning. (Luckily for me, photovoice is about the quality of the ideas represented, not the quality of the photos).

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We often start a learning journey without a clear view of the journey we will face. We might see some signposts, but they don’t always make sense at the start of the journey, and we only have a glimpse of our path ahead.

 

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If we start the learning journey we get a clearer picture of the daunting climb we face.

 

 

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But after the climb we realise that our initial view of our learning path was inaccurate, and there is much further to go than we thought.

 

 

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With further progress we start to see a glimmer of light, the end of our journey?

 

 

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And finally a whole new vista opens up for us, which we could not have imagined at the start of our journey. Now where to?

 

 

If this is a useful picture of the learning journey, then what does it say about good teaching? What would a good teacher be doing?

  • Guide students so they keep making progress along the path of learning
  • Motivate them to carry on, especially when they are unclear where they are going or how to get there
  • Build their self-efficacy so they feel that they are doing well, and that they will succeed if they carry on, despite difficulties
  • Give them feedback on what they have achieved so far, and what is next.

 

Wang, C., & Burris, M. A. (1997). Photovoice: Concept, methodology, and use for participatory needs assessment. Health Education & Behavior, 24(3 ), 369-387.

Wang, C. C. (2006). Youth participation in photovoice as a strategy for community change. Journal of Community Practice, 14(1-2), 147-161.

Posted in Learning

How do you judge whether someone is a good teacher?

Judging teaching is like diagnosing measles.

There are many things that can indicate measles, but no single indicator is proof of measles. A few spots doesn’t mean you have measles because there are plenty of other reasons why you might have spots. However, if you have spots and a temperature, and if the spots persist for longer than hives or insect bites, then you can be more confident of the diagnosis of measles.

Likewise, good scores on one evaluation questionnaire doesn’t mean you are a good teacher, because there are plenty of other reasons why students might have given good evaluation scores, and we don’t know whether the evaluations are equally good in your other courses (and neither does one bad questionnaire mean you are a bad teacher). However, if a teacher gets consistently good results from evaluation questionnaires from multiple courses, and over multiple years, and their peers also say they are a good teacher, and their students do well in their assessments, and in later careers, then you can be more confident that they are indeed a good teacher.

Posted in Evaluating Teaching

Disciplined learning, when students are reluctant to tackle the tasks we assign

Sometimes we ask students to do a series of tasks that are necessary for their learning, but which they would rather avoid. For example, we might assign readings for every class, or ask them to complete weekly reflections, or to post regularly on a discussion board. What do we do if our students resist doing these tasks, or if they simply don’t do them? How do we deal with their complaints: “I can’t see the point”, “it’s too hard”, “It’s too simplistic”, “I don’t like learning in that way” or “I don’t have time”.

We are asking for disciplined learning

What we are asking of our students is a disciplined approach to learning, similar to how someone learns to be a ballet dancer, a musician or a professional athlete. Disciplined learning is needed for particular kinds of learning which can only be achieved with regular training and exercise, such as being fit, being a dancer, being a musician, or being reflective. To achieve this kind of learning, students have to follow a disciplined process, supervised by a skilled coach/teacher, where they have to do things they would rather avoid.

Disciplined learning is not easy. It involves regular exercise and training for students, where we push the students beyond what they would do if they were left to their own device, like the personal trainer who shouts “just one more, you can do it!” Students might not want to do another stretch, or play another series of scales, or write another reflection, but if they don’t do these tasks regularly and frequently, week after week, they will not be able to achieve the learning objectives.

It is pointless and inappropriate for us to blame our students if they don’t do the tasks we set. There are many demands on their limited time and energy, so of course they are reluctant to squeeze in our regular learning tasks around their study, their work and their lives. Nevertheless, we know that regularly doing these tasks is necessary for their learning. There seem to be three ways we might help our students to regularly tackle these disciplined learning tasks.

1) Require students to do the tasks and support them

Make the tasks a requirement of the course. By this I mean, no exceptions to the requirements to do the task. Regular exercise and training only works if it is done regularly. If you miss the exercise you get no benefit, even if you have a good reason for missing it. So, the requirement is that students do the tasks on time, every week, no excuses. Another way of seeing this is that the tasks are the course. They are not an optional add-on to the real course which might be attending lectures, they are the course itself.

Even if you require students to do the tasks, there are various reasons why students might fail to complete the requirements, with common reasons being “I forgot” or “I ran out of time”. So, to support the students to complete the tasks you need to be like a personal trainer and monitor their performance, remind them to complete the tasks, and make them accountable for having done so. This is easiest if you specify exactly what is to be done and by when, so you, the student and the rest of the class can tell if the tasks have been completed or not. Ask students to let you know when they have completed their task, and you can also marshal the power of peer pressure and have them accountable to the rest of the class for completing their tasks. If they don’t complete the task in time, have them complete it during class time while the other students are doing something else.

However, I avoid giving grades for disciplined learning tasks. Assigning too many graded assessments is detrimental for student learning (Wass et al. 2015), and it means students are only doing the tasks for the grade. Intrinsic or personal motivation provides better encouragement. Instead of offering grades, I have something like a learning contract, where at the beginning of the course students agree to complete the tasks as a condition of doing the course.

I also avoid coercion or punishment for not doing the tasks. I think fostering personal motivation, where students choose to do the tasks, is a better way to foster learning. It is better if they voluntarily choose to complete the regular tasks, choose to be accountable for completing them, and choose to have someone act as their coach who will push them to do the tasks and help them overcome any forgetfulness or weakness of will.

2) Motivate students to do the tasks

Fostering student motivation is also essential for disciplined learning. The only feasible and ethical way to ensure students will do the tasks we assign, week after week, is if they are personally motivated to do them. So, how do you motivate students so they want to do tasks they were previously reluctant to do?

Students become motivated to complete the disciplined learning tasks when they are convinced that these tasks are important. If the students see the value of doing the tasks, see why they have been assigned these tasks, then they are more likely to voluntarily do them. So, as teachers, we need to show our students how completing the tasks is a milestone on the path to some important learning goal. We have to convince our students that the only way they can obtain something that they find valuable is via these tasks. For example, a teacher might explain how the tasks are exercises for an important learning goal, and invite past students to share how they use what they learned from these exercises. Another teacher might confront their students with problems that the students want to solve, but which they cannot solve unless they complete the tasks. A third way to show that the tasks are valuable is for you to do the tasks along with your students. This shows that you actually value the task in practice, which can be enough to motivate them to follow your lead.

However, even if our students see the value of doing the disciplined learning tasks, in a sense they still may not want to do these tasks. Even if someone knows that they can only be a great athlete by getting up before the sun to train, they still may not want to get up that early. Even if a student knows that they have to do the readings to get their dream career, they still may not want to do the readings. The problem is that we have a hierarchy of conflicting desires. On one level we can desire to avoid something, but this can be over-ridden by our higher-order desires for some bigger goal. For example, my desire to become an excellent teacher overcomes my desire to avoid writing regular reflective posts about my teaching. This hierarchy is important for understanding how we motivate students to undertake disciplined learning – we have to appeal to their higher-desires (this extends the idea of higher-order desires in Frankfurt 1971 and Cam 2016).

A third element of motivating our students is fostering confidence or self-efficacy about the tasks. Students will be more motivated if they feel they are doing well on these tasks, or at least improving (Bandura, 1982). So, teachers should use class time so students can practise doing the tasks, and they should give regular and frequent feedback to build the confidence and capacity of their students.

Build trust so students are more likely to do the tasks you set

A further way of ensuring your students tackle disciplined learning tasks, is to foster student trust. Students will be more motivated to do the tasks we assign, and more likely to complete them, if they respect their teacher, have confidence that their teacher is competent in this area of teaching, if they trust their teacher is working to support their learning, and if they trust that they will benefit from following the teacher’s instructions.

How do you build this trust and confidence in your students? One way is to show that you value your students. They are more willing to trust your methods, and go along with them, if they think you value them. Another way is to show your students your credentials as a teacher and as a subject expert. In the first class or two your students will be sizing you up, and you need to show them you care about their learning, and you know what you are doing (and even better if you do this before the first class using pre-course emails).

Doing the task with your students can also help build trust. When you do the same tasks as your students you can indicate where you struggle, and how you overcome these challenges (this is sometimes called ‘intellectual streaking’, Bearman and Molloy, 2017). This shows your students that you trust them enough to expose your mistakes and errors. It also gives your students a more accurate view of how difficult these tasks are, even for someone who is experienced. This can reassure your students that their own struggles are normal, which gives them confidence to persevere despite challenges.

Sometimes student-trust can replace student-motivation. If students really trust their teacher, they will be willing to do the tasks the teacher assigns, even if they cannot see the point of these tasks. This is the Karate Kid approach to teaching. Mr Miyagi, the karate teacher, tells his student to paint the fence all day using up-down strokes with the brush, and the next day using side-to-side strokes, and alternating right and left arms. This seems like a complete waste of time to the karate kid who rebels, but Mr Miyagi then shows him how the movements he used for painting translate to karate punches and blocks. The karate kid then realises that he can trust Mr Miyagi: If he does the weird tasks Mr Miyagi sets him, he will learn something important, even if he doesn’t understand why he is doing these tasks. He learns to trust the teaching.

 

Note: Some of these methods for encouraging disciplined learning will also be useful when your students resist learning the content you are teaching; They are useful methods when your students complain “Why are we learning this?” because they think the topic is boring, irrelevant or pointless.

 

References

Bandura, A (1982) Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2): 122–147.

Bearman, M, & Molloy, E (2017) Intellectual streaking: The value of teachers exposing minds (and hearts), Medical Teacher, 39(12), pp. 1284-1285,

Cam, P (2014) Fact, Value and Philosophy Education. Journal of Philosophy in Schools, 1(1), pp. 1-10.

Frankfurt, H (1971) Freedom of the will and the concept of a person. Journal of Philosophy, 58(1), pp. 5-20.

Wass, R, Harland, T, McLean, A, Miller, E, Sim, KN (2015) Will press lever for food: behavioural conditioning of students through frequent high-stakes assessment. Higher Education Research & Development, 34(6), pp. 1324-1326.

Posted in Learning, Planning teaching, Students | 1 Comment

Heartening a disheartened teacher

Sometimes a teacher gets disheartened, jaded or discouraged when they struggle to improve their teaching without result. They might think “I’m just a bad teacher”, “I’ve already tried that”, “Nothing works for my students”, “It’s not my fault”, or “I just don’t have time and energy to improve.” They are stuck and can’t see a way forward.

How might you hearten the disheartened teacher? I present three inter-related strategies:

Continuum of progress as a teacher

Help them to see teaching as a continuum from worse to better teaching. Everyone is somewhere on this continuum and no one is ‘good’ or ‘bad’; No matter how good they are they could do better, and no matter how bad they are, they could be worse (eg if they were drunk in class after zero preparation).

If they are disheartened because they thought “I’m not a good teacher, and that’s all there is to it”, they become locked into being a bad teacher with no possibility of change. But if they instead see teaching as a continuum, this opens up a growth mindset (Dweck 2015) or an enhancement approach to teaching (Golding and Adam 2016), where one’s ability at teaching is not fixed, and it is always possible to improve.

If they are disheartened because they think “I’ve already tried everything and nothing works” then they will dismiss any suggestions about how to enhance their teaching because they already do that. But if they instead see teaching as a continuum, they can shift their perspective from whether they do or do not, to instead whether they do enough, or whether they could do it better. They move from “I already speak clearly and slowly in lectures, and plan my teaching, so there is nothing I can do to improve,” and instead they wonder “How can I make my lectures clearer for my students? How can I plan my classes better than I currently do it?”

If a teacher sees teaching as a continuum it is easier to identify areas of teaching that are going well, and other areas which could be refined, enhanced or improved. This allows then to be confident about some aspects of their teaching (the literature sometimes calls this self-efficacy eg Bandura 1982), which gives them a firm place to stand while trying to improve their teaching. They can see that they are doing OK, which allows them the confidence to work on the more risky areas where they could improve.

In many institutions there is also a threshold on the continuum which teachers have to cross in order to be considered good-enough (eg the threshold might that 70% or more of their students agree or strongly agree that they are an effective teacher). But ‘good-enough’ is merely an arbitrary point on the continuum, which an institution says is the required standard. If you are below the threshold you are not a bad teacher, and you can always enhance your teaching and get over the threshold.

Progress by developing different teaching knowledge

An additional way to hearten a disheartened teacher is to show them that any teacher can improve by developing one or more kind of knowledge about teaching (Shulman 1987). All teachers know some things about teaching, but lack other knowledge. From this perspective a teacher can be heartened that they know some important things about teaching, and they can see a path for progressing their teaching by developing other knowledge.

For example, you can hearten a disheartened teacher by showing them that they already have the content knowledge for their subject – they know their subject. They also know general teaching methods such as how to explain things so someone can understand, how to organise a powerpoint slide-show, how to ask questions to probe student understanding, etc. However, they may only partially know other things. They might not have enough pedagogical content knowledge about how to teach their subject to their particular students. Although they know how to teach their subject to postgraduate students, and to first year students in one country, they don’t know what will work to teach this same content to second year students in a different country with different students.

Teachers can be heartened if they understand that diverse knowledge is needed for teaching, because it is obvious that lacking some knowledge doesn’t make someone a bad teacher, and because it indicates that access to improvement is by developing more knowledge. For example, the disheartened teacher can get new knowledge about their students, and use this to tailor their teaching so it will work for these particular students. In this way they develop more pedagogical content knowledge about what is the best way to explain this tricky concept to these students, and what tasks and activities these students will find engaging and intriguing rather than boring and irrelevant.

Teach the students you have

A similar way to hearten a disheartened teacher is to help them realise that different groups of students need to be taught in different ways, and so there is no such thing as being a good teacher in all situations, but only good teaching for these students. They can provide good teaching for some students, but not for others. So, they can improve by translating their methods which are successful in one context, for one group of students, to a different context and a different group of students.

If teachers are disheartened because they think that their students are to blame for poor teaching results (“students are not doing enough work” or “students don’t have the basic knowledge they need”), then they will not be able to see anything they can do to improve. However, if they instead see that teaching involves teaching the actual students in front of you, with all their particularities, then they will easily see ways they can improve.

Having poor results for one group of students doesn’t make you a bad teacher, it just means you lack some important teacher knowledge. To improve, you need to know:

  • Their expectations about learning and about their teachers
  • Their preferences and dislikes in relation to learning
  • Their background knowledge
  • Their interests

This knowledge is essential so a teacher can pitch their teaching for their actual students, rather than pitching it for the ideal student, the assumed student, or how the students should be. Once you know your particular students it is much easier to develop effective strategies for getting them to where you want them to be rather than wasting time with strategies that would only work with different students.

References

Shulman, L (1987) Knowledge and teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 57(1), pp. 1–22.

Bandura, A (1982) Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), pp. 122–147.

Golding, C and Adam, L (2016) Evaluate to improve: Useful approaches to student evaluation, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, (41)1, pp. 1-14.

Dweck, C (2014) How Can You Develop a Growth Mindset about Teaching? Educational Horizons, 93(2), p. 15

Posted in Mentoring

What methods should I use in my teaching?

How do I decide whether to teach using case studies or key readings, whether to offer a lecture or to use the allocated time for directed problem solving? Should I assign practice exercises, and should they be completed individually or in groups, with or without peer feedback? In other words, how do I decide what teaching methods to use?

A teaching method is anything a teacher might do to foster or support student learning. This includes methods for helping students understand the content, methods for building a supportive learning environment, as well as the tasks assigned to students. Teaching methods include, but are not limited to, class discussion, independent problem-solving, individual inquiry, virtual world simulations, powerpoint presentation, video presentation and student presentation. The range of possible teaching methods is limited only by your imagination.

Given the diverse possibilities, choosing an appropriate teaching method might seem arbitrary. Yet it can be a deliberate, considered judgement if you see your teaching methods as tools for the job of fostering student learning. Then it is obvious how you choose a teaching method: first be clear on what the job is, and then design a useful tool for this job.

Be clear on what the job is

To clarify the learning job you have to clarify: 1) the particular learning outcome you want, 2) the kind of outcome this is (is the outcome new knowledge, understanding, skill, value, behaviour, or way of being?), as well as 3) the learning process that will lead to this outcome; the process by which students get to the learning outcome. For example:

  1. You want your students to understand photosynthesis. More specifically, the outcome is students will be able to explain the concept of photosynthesis, using their own words, as well as being able to apply this conceptual knowledge to explain how photosynthesis occurs in particular cases.
  2. This learning outcome involves students having new conceptual knowledge, and also new skills in applying abstract conceptual knowledge to particular cases.
  3. How does someone learn conceptual knowledge? They need to be offered some information about the concept, perhaps from a lecture or in a book, but they also need a chance to assimilate this information into what they already know. How do they learn a skill? This involves an iterative process of attempting the action (in this case applying the concept of photosynthesis to explain different cases), then getting feedback, using the feedback to improve, then attempting the action again, etc.

To fully understand the job our teaching methods have to do, we have to think developmentally. We have to chart the whole learning path our students will need to take, starting from their initial understandings and skills (including their typical misunderstandings and mistakes), through various stages of their growing understanding and developing ability, until they reach the final outcomes.

Design the right tool for the job.

The second step is to think of what you and tour students can do that would foster this learning process, and what tools are useful for this job. For example, you might have decided that you want your students to be independent thinkers, and now you design methods that will enable your particular students to learn independence.

I sometimes I see this as choosing from a box of pre-existing tools, but a generic tool may not be effective in any particular teaching situation, so it is often more like designing a tool for the very specific job you have. You need creativity to design a teaching method that will lead to your particular learning outcome, in your particular context – it has to work for you and your students.

You don’t have to design your teaching methods on your own, especially if you are new to teaching or unfamiliar with many teaching methods. Talk to others to discover the methods they use, and to get advice about methods that might suit your context. Alternatively, or additionally, you might read some articles or books, attend a workshop, or do your own research.

When you design a teaching method, you also have to think about the hidden curriculum – how your unintended, unconscious methods can affect student learning. For example, if one learning outcome is that your students can make independent judgements, your chosen teaching method might be to ask students to grapple with open-ended problems without obvious answers. However, you also have to consider what they are learning from the other things you do when you teach – your hidden methods. For example, many teachers instinctively respond to student answers by telling their students whether they are correct or incorrect. Unfortunately what the students learn from this unintended, hidden method is that there are right answers, that the teacher has them, and that they should rely on the teacher to judge whether an answer is right or wrong. In this case the teacher’s hidden methods are unintentionally undermining their attempts to foster independent thinking.

Following from this, you also have to make sure you use the teaching method in a way that will let you complete the job. So, for example, even if powerpoint can be a useful tool to get your learning outcomes, there are multiple ways to use it, and some may be inappropriate for your intended learning outcome. Using powerpoint to summarise the main concepts in a few words might be useful to prompt your students to explain photosynthesis in their own words, but if you give too many details in the powerpoint, the students might find it hard to escape your way of explaining photosynthesis, and so be unable to articulate their own understanding of this concept.

Evaluate and improve

Even after going through this process of designing your teaching methods, you can’t be sure whether a teaching method will work until you try it with your particular students and evaluate its success. So, fully answering the question ‘what teaching method should I use?’ will probably take several years of creative design, testing, evaluating, improving and retesting. This at least involves an informal process of research into teaching, and might involve a formal research process.

Posted in Planning teaching